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For over 30 years, Patrick Zachmann has traveled across China, a country he first visited in 1982 while reporting on the Chinese film industry, resulting in a major body of work entitled So Long, China.

CHINA. Beijing 1982. A group of Chinese watching "the Long Nose", a term which refers to all westerners, including the photographer.

Beijing 1982.
A group of Chinese watching “the Long Nose”, a term which refers to all westerners, including the photographer.

From the triads of Hong Kong in the 1980s to Beijing’s transformation and the Tiananmen Square protests, Zachmann’s long term project brings together a contemporary view on a vast nation in constant flux. Spanning 20 trips to China, Zachmann undertook a persistent and thorough documentation life for the Chinese, both in China and abroad. Indeed, even his most recent work documents the Chinese community in France. Underlying the work, the issue of Chinese identity is explored, or rather, the young generations’ collective and individual loss of identity and its markers through the great pace of change of the country.

The Chinese community.

Beijing. Tienanmen Square. May 1989. A drama student who came with a couple of fellow students to show their solidarity with the protestors, perfoms “the pain of the Chinese people”.

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Hairdresser and beauty parlour. Those shops often serve as cover for prostitution activities. Province of Zhejiang, Town of Wenzhou. February 1991.

During his first trip, Zachmann wrote in his diary; “It is my first trip to China. I have prepared it for months. I feel attracted by this country and its culture,not knowing exactly why. I have fantasies and clichés in my mind, bound to this millenary culture, its strangeness, its mystery. Bound to unreachable things.

He was to be the observer of a great many changes, most notably in May 1989 when he witnessed the events of Tiananmen Square:

May 1989. I was working on the Chinese diaspora when I happened to be in Beijing right at the start of the Tiananmen Square movement. Nights and days, I am going to share the students’ enthusiasm while they challenge the authority of the old leadership. Nor I nor anyone could expect the tragedy of the 4th of June. History has kept that brutal act of repression, but ahead of it there was a fantastic impetus of dreams and hopes, something akin to a Chinese Woodstock. […] For who knows China, this wild enthusiasm, this joy, this desire for freedom, were astounding! Imagination, acted-out feelings, hidden for decades…

CHINA. May 15, 1989. Beijing. Tian' anmen Square.

CHINA. May 15, 1989.
Beijing. Tiananmen Square.

Beijing. Tiananmen Square. May 1989. Early morning.

Beijing. Tiananmen Square. May 1989. Early morning.

Beijing. Chang An Avenue. May 18th, 1989. Lorries with students and workers move towards Tiananmen square to unite with the hunger strikers.

Beijing. Chang An Avenue. May 18th, 1989. Lorries with students and workers move towards Tiananmen square to unite with the hunger strikers.

From his black and white reportage of a country where, as a European, he was perceived as “a long-nose” by Mao-suited curious locals, Zachmann transitioned to color photography in 2001.

His Chinese Nights series brings to life urban landscapes drenched in extravagant, artificial light, highlighting the deep and quick mutation of the urban space China is well-known for today – a mutation achieved by a veritable army of poorly-paid construction workers whose ceaseless work overhauled the country’s physical form, which Zachmann described as “the invariable mass destruction of the past for modern and unappealing new buildings” when he visited Wenzhou.

CHINA. Beijing. 2001. Young prostitute in a massage parlour, originally from Henan.

CHINA. Beijing. 2001. Young prostitute in a massage parlour, originally from Henan.

"Super Five" night club. Shanghai. 2002.

“Super Five” night club. Shanghai. 2002.

CHINA. Zhejiang province. Wenzhou. 2007.

CHINA. Zhejiang province. Wenzhou. 2007.

He recalls, “When I was working in China during the 1980s and 1990s, there wasn’t such a thing as a ‘nightlife’, properly speaking. Or, to be more accurate, there was one, only it remained underground, wrapped in secrecy. Nowadays, though, the night territory is in open daylight, if I may say so. All around the country, cities stay alive at night, either for intense work (particularly on construction sites) or for intense merriment in gambling, celebrations, shopping, quest for pleasure… A myriad young girls from the poorest provinces become, by means fair or foul, bar hostesses, masseuses or hookers, and they are the living force of the Chinese nights.

CHINA. Chongqing. May 2007. Migrant workers (Mingong) in the dormitories of the construction site. Most of them comes from poor villages of Sichuan province. They live on the site and they are up to twenty in each dormitory, including some couples.

CHINA. Chongqing. May 2007. Migrant workers (Mingong) in the dormitories of the construction site. Most of them comes from poor villages of Sichuan province. They live on the site and they are up to twenty in each dormitory, including some couples.

China, Dali, august 2012. Yu Hang, 25, owner of a skateboard and tatoo shop, lives with his grand-Ma Cha Xiu Zhen, 86.

China, Dali, august 2012. Yu Hang, 25, owner of a skateboard and tatoo shop, lives with his grand-Ma Cha Xiu Zhen, 86.

Zachmann’s multi-generational portraits show the speed of change in China, contrasting the old generation with the young, photographed in spaces that bear the hallmarks of both ancient China and its traditions and the markings of a globalised youth society – a microcosm of this project’s broad endeavour.

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“The Walled City”, has been an enclave of the People’s Republic of China, where Hong Kong’s police, not being authorized to enter, allowed all kinds of dealers and their Triads to develop their bussiness undisturbed. The City has been destroyed since the Transfer of the Sovereignty over Hong Kong to China. Kowloon, Hong Kong, 1987.

Hong Kong. Kowloon. 1987. A crowd in front of a Budhist Temple during the Chinese New Year.

Hong Kong. Kowloon. 1987.
A crowd in front of a Buddhist Temple during the Chinese New Year.

Hong Kong 1987. Kowloon, "The Walled City", Ah Sai former member of secret society...

Hong Kong 1987.
Kowloon, “The Walled City”, Ah Sai former member of secret society…

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Young woman in the front seat of a taxi, separated by a wire net as protection for the driver against aggressions. Guangdong, Canton. 1992.

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Young member of a triad with his girlfriend. Hong Kong, 1988.

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18 year old boy from Canton, caught by Gurkhas (soldiers from the British Army). Man Kam To border area, Hong Kong, April 1995.

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Beijing. Chang An Avenue. May 17th, 1989.

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Party in a private flat belonging to overseas Chinese people. At the time all nightlife activities were restricted and private parties forbidden. Province of Zhejiang, Wenzhou. 1991.

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Advertising arrived at the time of Deng Xiaoping, when the country became more open to the outside world. Guangdong, Canton. 1992.

CHINA.Fujian.1992. Province of Fujian. Family playing majong. To the north of Hong Kong on mainland China are the province of Fujian and Guandong, which in 10 years will have mastered the other "business dragons" of Southeastern Asia, and become an important commercial trading area ready to face the return of Hong Kong to China in 1997. Hong Kong is the gateway to these economic areas, favouring investments and family ties.

Fujian.1992.
Province of Fujian. Family playing mahjong.
To the north of Hong Kong on mainland China are the province of Fujian and Guangdong, which in 10 years will have mastered the other “business dragons” of Southeastern Asia, and become an important commercial trading area ready to face the return of Hong Kong to China in 1997. Hong Kong is the gateway to these economic areas, favouring investments and family ties.

so long china

Shooting of the film “Liao Zhong Kai” by Tang Xiao Dan. The film is set in the 1920s. Shanghai. 1982.

His book So Long, China, published by Xavier Barral, brings together these three decades of Chinese contemporary history, and won the Prix Nadar on October 27, 2016.

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Originally posted on Arts & Culture at magnumphotos.com
All photographs © Patrick Zachmann | Magnum Photos